Studies in the Letter of Jude

Pastor Peter Bisset.

(Download Jude Notes).

Verses 1 and 2 – Acts of the Apostles or the Holy Spirit at the beginning of the Church Age. The Acts of the Apostates or false spirit at the end of the Church Age. Apostasy is ‘falling away’, a departure from the Truth of the Gospel. It denies true Doctrine, departs from faith but does not give up profession of Christianity. It does not endure sound doctrine (1Corinthians 14:8), but has itching ears, turned away from Truth to fables.

What do you hear in your Church? Do you hear the full doctrine of Christ? Or fairy tales? Or a social Gospel? Peter says, ‘Damnable heresies’ etc, subtle heresies. Turning the Grace of God into lasciviousness (see Luke 18:8).

THE Faith. – There may be lots of ‘Religion’ at the end.

Do not confuse apostasy with error or heresy. Error is often due to ignorance. Heresy is the subtlety of Satan. Apostates are only ‘Professors’ of Christianity. Know the time we are living in.

Jude in Greek means Judas, Strange, Worst apostate, treacherous. Yet this Jude brings us good teaching, exposing what Apostasy is. This Jude is a servant, a bond-slave of Jesus Christ. Not bondage, but freedom of choice, serving joyfully, a privilege. Jude was 1 of 4 (half) brothers of the Lord (Mark 6:3; Galatians 1:19). Also James knew Jesus’ Deity from Mary. Live with a person before you really know them. So here, James and Jude believed.

V1 – Three words, Sanctified, Preserved, Called (invited). From darkness to light (1Peter 2:9). Invited to share the Glory of Jesus Christ. Preserved – Assurance – certain salvation in Christ (1Peter 1:5). Not faith in a denomination, but in Christ, most secure. Set apart to do His will, glorify His Name on earth, earnestly contend for the Faith. Jude shows evil works up and exposes them as Apostasy. James’s, brother, good works are evidence of Salvation. Defence of Truth.

v3Beloved – Agape, not Phileo.

Warning – men in the Last Days will deny Truth – Resist. Divine Truth is inspired (2Peter 1:21: 2Timothy 3:16). The Epistle is for our day, especially. Exhort. Paraclete along side us. God the Father called Him alongside us especially in the Last Days.

Contend – striving in combat(Numbers 10:9). When unbelief comes in the Church stoutly defend the Faith. Truth is ridiculed in the Church and schools today. Fight this. Contend for the Faith. In 2Samuel 23:11-12, David’s mighty men e.g. Shammah. He stood and defended the area against their enemy (see Nehemiah 4:18 & 20). Do not fear remember the Lord (v17). Sword, trowel, trumpet – ward off the enemy work. They may mock, ridicule, sneer, plot our destruction. We have sword – use it against the enemy – apostate. God is with us (Nehemiah 4:18; 1Thessalonians 4:13-18). The trumpet of God will soon sound – listen for it, be ready. Work, for the night is coming, it is here almost (John 9:4). Defend the whole Body of Revealed Truth, the Bible. Stand up for it. The Apostate is an enemy of the True Church. Know the Truth (John 7:17-18).

v4 – Why contend? Definition of an Apostate (2Peter 2:1-4; 12-19).

1. Ungodly.

2. Turn Grace away.

3. Denies God and the Lord, as Lord.

1. The ungodly may seem to be a good man – yet lacks fear, awe and reverence, an unbeliever denies the Virgin Birth, Miracles, Atonement, Resurrection, the Second Coming. Denies the New Birth, the Supernatural, Transforming life. He teaches the brotherhood of men – false teaching. A lie from the Pit, it says God is the father of all men. Suggests no necessity for new birth, Salvation. The ungodly belong to their father, the devil (John 8:44). Jude says, ‘they sneaked in among us’ (v4; 2Corinthians 11:14-15).

2. Turns Grace into lasciviousness. Suggests freedom to sin. Rejects Scripture Truth. ‘Shall we continue in sin – God forbid.’ Titus 2:11 says, ‘deny ungodliness’ …otherwise apostate.’

3. Denies our only Master and Lord. As today. Bible says He is Creator, Sovereign, Master – Virgin born. Apostates say – a mere man. They deny His Pre-­Existence. The Bible says He is Lord of all true Christians. Apostates deny the Resurrection and Lordship of Christ (2Peter 2:1). The Resurrection declares Him Lord.

Jesus – Jehovah Saviour. Apostates say He is only a good man. A Martyr. The Bible says He is Saviour Divine of sinful men. The Christ – the Anointed One. The Apostates mock the Old Testament mere folklore, myth, they say. Apostates are always here, yet worse now, a great host among us, profess to know God, yet are immoral, homosexual. We are In the Last Days now. The stage is set for the coming of the Lord (2Thessalonians 2:7-9). A glorious deliverance for the True Church, the Body and Bride of 2Corinthians 13:5. ‘Examine yourself… Prove… in the Faith, or counterfeit’. Easy to be deceived by false doctrine today. Is Christ in you? Tares grow along with the wheat. Do you have a genuine experience of Salvation? Take the whole armour of God. Stand against the wiles of the devil. Believers are preserved for Heaven. Apostates are marked out for condemnation.

v5 – Examples of Apostasy in Old Testament history. Corporate departure from God’s will and ways. Remember lessons of the past dealings of God. Christians secure but flesh destroyed (1Corinthians 5:5). So Israel sinned and that generation were denied entry into the Promised land, due to unbelief (Numbers 14:1-2). God took their word – they died (Hebrews 3:7-12; 16-19). Saved, yes, but did not enter into blessing. Saviour, yes – but He is Lord of every part (1Corinthians 10:5-15).

Examples for us at the end of the Age. Clouds (1Corinthians 10:1-5), sea, baptism. Ate the same, drank – had same spiritual opportunities. Five things resulted in physical destruction (v6-10). Lusted. Idolaters. Fornication. Tempted Christ. Murmured. Fell and lost on future blessings and also now (see v12). Israel then forfeited physical life. Souls not lost (1John 5:16-17). Christians can sin unto death. God removes him from this life. Judgment not in our hands concerning others. Judge ourselves. Some have sinned. Useless now, our lives may be taken (Ananias and Sapphira). Our bodies bought by Jesus. He owns our bodies. Christ is Judge – not us (1Corinthians 10:13). True for us. Judge ourselves – then we are not – judged by God! Facing the Laver – saw need of cleansing – washing cleansed people. Mirrored in the Word. Jesus said, ’You are clean through the Word given to you’ (see 1John 1:9).

v6-7 – Realm of Angels. Rebellion. Chained. Darkness. Judgment Day at the end of the Millennium. These are not satan’s angels. They are still free (see Genesis 6:4; 1Corinthians 6:3). Why is it here? 2Peter 2:4. The Judgment of 21st Century is also sure. These verses not read much or preached on. Situation slip today, outbreak of these ancient sins, Perversion, Sodomy. Changed the Truth of God into lie, threw off all restraint (Romans 1:25-28; 32). God gave them up, when they determined to continue in their sins. Swift destruction will come. An ordinary day’s life. THEN – judgment (Genesis 19:23-24). Pain of fire, physical, yet also spiritual pain. This generation is the same position unless they turn away from sin to the Saviour. They will have the same destiny as those. Jesus said it will be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah on the judgment day than for those who reject the Gospel – or who saw Jesus in the flesh. To hear the Gospel and then turn away is Apostasy. Flee from the wrath to come. It is later than you think. All Apostates face the vengeance of Eternal fire – that’s the lesson here.

v8. Three characteristics of Apostasy, then and now.

1. Defile the flesh – as did Sodom and Gomorrah.

2. Despise authority – as Angels did.

3. Rail at dignities – e.g. Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron, appointed by God to lead Israel then (Genesis 19:17, & 24-25). Unbelief, rebellion, lust, judgment.

1. Fleshly-sins eventually. First appearance is upright, then true character appears as enemies of the Gospel – workers of iniquity. Denies authority of God and Christ. He cuts himself off and away from the only one who can control. his lower nature, delivering him from lust. Evil lusts result and dominate the body, soul and spirit (Galatians 5:19). (Opposite in v22) ‘Such defile the flesh’ (James 1:13-16, Romans 1:24-32).

2. Despise dominion and authority – Human or Divine. Jesus Christ is Lord and Master. They also despise His redeeming work and also His Second Coming. Apostates may seem to triumph, (why do the wicked prosper?) but it is short lived (Psalm 37:1 & 9). God has highly exalted Him, every knee should bow. Jesus Christ IS Lord. Modernists oppose the Truth of the Lord Jesus now but not for long. They despise the Word too, its authority and power, replacing it with a new social order, subversive movements which attempt to overthrow governments. Dangers come from theologians who oppose – the Word and Work of Jesus and existing governments. Such as Liberation Theology. Religious – men, yes, but despicable men.

3. Speak evil of dignities, rulers. Rulers make mistakes. Pray for them (Romans 13) Abusive – vile people speak against rulers. Powers are ordained of God. Government is by Divine institution, just like marriage, or chaos results. Peter says, ‘Let everyone be subject to higher powers, speak evil of no man (1Peter 2:11-17, also Titus 3:2). All this flavours of Apostasy.

Never has there been such an assault and insults against Christ. Secular and religious mock and ridicule the person and work of Christ (2Peter 3:2 onwards). Scoffers today ridicule the Second Coming. Willingly ignorant – deliberate. ­Grace is still here – God holds judgment back for a little longer. Time to repent and receive Christ’s pardon and forgiveness new birth and Eternal life.

v9-10 – Seriousness of railing against those in authority. Verses 9-10 examples. Apostates are brute beasts who corrupt themselves. The people rebelled against Moses by murmuring. Satan hated Moses. Michael the first or highest angel (‘Arch’), did not speak against satan from himself. He used the Lord’s authority and Name.

Michael in Daniel 10:21; 12:1 helps Israel (see also Revelation 12; 1Thessalonians 4). Archangel Michael there cannot interfere or prevent the Rapture. Michael protects the Church (Hebrews 1:14; 1Peter 5:8-9). Sober vigilant, alert, on guard. Contrast with Lucifer in his beauty before his fall, cast down. Satan attempts to prevent God’s programme for the Ages. Michael serves the Lord to protect (see Deuteronomy 34:5-6). Michael is careful what he says. Also we should be careful. Set a watch over my mouth. Careful in ministry gifts exercised. Apostates are not like that. They preach politics, science, social ethics only, but not the Biblical message. Enemies of the cross and Redemption. Enemies of the Gospel.

v10 – Apostates speak evil of these precious things. They blaspheme to their own ruin and final result and end. They speak natural knowledge, nothing spiritual in their word, to tongue or message. ‘What shall it profit a man’ (1Corinthians 2:14). Have nothing to do with Apostates. Turn away from an Apostate’s message (1Corinthians 2:14).

V11 – Here is the heart or the letter. “Woe” (cp. Matthew 11:20; 18:7; 23:13). Apostasy is not confined to one class of person. They can come from ‘prophets’ princes and common people, like Biblical times, so today.

1. Apostates enter wrong path e.g. Cain (reasoned religion)

2. Go greedily along e.g. Balaam (teaching error – money)

3. Perish in their own corruption e.g. Korah (rebellion).

Cain brought fruit of the ground. Abel brought a lamb – blood sacrifice, acceptable to God. Cain’s offering was not (Hebrew 11:4). Cain set aside the Word of God’s command. Apostates know about the Truth, but reject the fundamental truths. Cain did. He brought his own choice and thought (Proverbs 16:25). Apostasy is a way of man’s choosing his own thoughts. Such an apostate murders souls. Broad is the way that leads to destruction (Matthew 7). Two ways. Two gates. Two companies. Two destinies. Two fruits from two trees. Many know them by conviction, but choose to depart and move away. It will lock them into an unchangeable lost destiny.

The way of Cain – man – reason (1John 3:12) – First man, first murderer. World system of false religion. They greedily run after a certain error – Balaam loved money (Numbers 22-26; 31:8 & 16; 2Peter 2:13-19). He could not curse Israel, but suggested corruption (Joshua 13:22; Numbers 23:10; 31:8; 22:8, 19; 24:1). Balaam slain. Apostates in position for what they can gain their own interests, power, influence, position (1Timothy 6:5; Titus 1:11).

Korah – rebellion (Numbers 16:1-3) – Cousin of Moses (Exodus 6:21). Against Moses (Numbers 16:19-33). Perished in a moment into the pit. Rejected the Mediator between God’s appointed one (Moses) and the people. So now – the Saviour. Woe unto all, says Jude. Numbers 26:10-11. Korah’s sons did not die. They chose a different course – and were saved from death. Do not walk in the way of the ungodly. Reject the way of Cain and do not run after the error of Balaam, or rebel as in the rebellion of Korah (attracted 250 leaders to kill him). (Fear the Lord v26).

v12-13 – Five word pictures. Final summary of conditions in the Last Days before the Second Coming. List natural phenomena, true nature of Apostasy.

1. Spots, or sunken hidden rocks – unseen dangers reach up from beneath the sea in the feasts. Threaten spiritual warfare who come into contact with them.

2. Clouds without water – carried about with wind – opposite of Luke 12:4. Jude – clouds are men. They pose as men who promise much but are empty, of giving refreshing nourishment. Destruction to the hearers. Winds – spirit, carried along downwards trend by evil satanic spirits that control them. Men act under the influence of evil spirits. Unsaved apostate driven along by wicked spirits. The saved are led along by the Holy Spirit.

3. Trees whose fruit withers – means ‘late Autumn trees’. Fair in appearance, yet in season of fruit produce only leaves (Matthew 15:13, Jesus to Pharisees; Proverbs 2:22). Contrast with the righteous planted by the water (Psalm 1:1-6), producing fruit in due season.

4. Twice dead. – (Ephesians 2:1). Dead in sin and false teaching. Name is dead and lifeless. ‘Dead men in Church pulpits, as deacons and in the pews’ – Spurgeon. Note: Jude placed before book of the Revelation. Apostasy before the Second Coming and judgments.

5. Plucked up by the roots – Past tense – Doom already sealed.

6. Raging waves of the sea – Unbelieving masses (Psalm 65:7; Luke 21:25). Wicked like the troubled sea – no rest (Isaiah 57). Waters cast up mire and dirt – description of ungodly. No peace to the wicked. Foams out words of shame. Shameful to listen to. We are living in an age of denials. The sea cannot break the rock, even though raging. It will be broken on the Rock (Daniel 2:34-35 & 44-45; Matthew 21:44). The Rock will pulverise to powder when it falls on them in judgment.

7. Wandering stars reserved for darkness. – Star on erratic course burns to black cinders. So, description of Apostate. Believes with his head for a time, goes deeper into darkness of lostness of eternity. Frightening description. Thank God for our Salvation. Awful destiny of Apostate in verse 13. We Believers have Glory reserved as a home and inheritance. The Christian is a living stone not a dangerous rock. We are wells of living water – not a waterless cloud. We are trees of righteousness – instead of a dead tree. We enjoy peace like a river – not like a raging wave. We will shine like a star in its brilliancy – not a wandering star.

v14-15 – Apostasy in the Old Testament prophecy. Enoch’s words miraculously preserved – a prophet for us. Prophecy is the oldest announcement of future events known to be uttered by any man (Genesis 5:21). Methuselah means – ‘When he is dead it (flood) shall be sent.’ Flood came 7 days after his death. He lived 969 years – longest of all men. Here is the Grace and longsuffering patience of God, in mercy, yes, but what wrath and judgment when the flood came. He extended the life of Methuselah to provide maximum time, for man to repent (Genesis 5:22). Enoch walked with God after Methuselah was born for 300 years. He entered a close walk with God – a marked man from then on. Enoch knew the meaning of Methuselah. This changed his life’s aspects and attitudes. What about ours? Destruction would come when his son Methuselah died. He knew this. So, he walked even closer with God (Genesis 5:24). He walked with God – God took him. No obituary. He did not die. Magnificent type of the Church in Rapture. The true Church walks close with God, despite Apostasy and evil all around us. Do you realise what is to happen soon? (1Thess 4:13-18; Hebrews 11:5). Enoch looked beyond the Rapture to the Revelation of Jesus Christ, coming with His Saints. The Millennium follows. At the Rapture He comes for His Saints. At the Revelation He comes with His Saints, with 10,000’s of His Saints (v14). Why?

1. To execute judgment

2. Prove terrible things done in rebellion.

3. Reveal ungodly things spoken against Him (2Thessalonians 2:8-9). Vengeance (Matthew 25:31 onwards). Eternal punishment for the wicked, children of wrath doomed.

V16-21 – Verse 16. Apostasy spreads rapidly in the End of the Age. The peak will be in the Great Tribulation headed up by Rome (see Revelation 17 & 18). Harlot, one world church includes world religions. All churches will unite, then destroyed by Antichrist in the end – he is the first beast. False. Christ and False Prophet who is the second beast. 2 beasts. Satanic organisation of those who lead towards the one world church are close to being Apostate or are already Apostate refusing to contend for the Faith. No Born Again preacher will join the World Church or deny Fundamental Truths. Satan’s ministers are angels of light (transformed so) and are counterfeit and apostate (2Corinthians 11:13-15 – outward change).

1. Murmurers. Complainers, mockers (v18). In this Greek form not in the New Testament though the verb form is in John 6:41. Apostates hate truth. Believer’s love truth (John 6:66 onwards). Disciples murmured – Jesus said, some believe not, does this offend you. Some went back, walked no more with Him. Faced with Truth – they proved to be not genuine. The true disciples believed that He is the Christ. Judas shows his true colours later. Murmuring – a sin of great import – has in it the flavour of Apostasy, reveals the presence of unbelief. Apostates murmur against Christ.

2. Complainers. Not found elsewhere in New Testament except verb form in Mark 7:2. Pharisees found fault with the disciples not holding to traditions. Answer in Mark 7:6. In vain do they worship me – hypocrites. Fault-­finding Christian is one who turns his back on the truth, laying aside the commands of God, as did the Pharisees.

3. Walk after their own lusts. Mark 4:18-19. Sown among thorns. Those who hear the word – lusts enter, choke the Word and becomes without fruit, unfruitful. Jude – same Greek expression – ‘choking out’ the Word of God. They hear it, received it momentarily then rejected it, not bearing fruit. They choked it out through their own lusts.

4. Arrogant boasters. Swelling words. Boast human progress, do away with the faith once delivered to the Saints. They make true Christians look like fools They deny the lord Who bought us. They do not know the Lord. They desire the praise of men, personal gain. They are going to hell, taking millions with them. Tragic.


v19 – Separate and divide people. Divisive spirit, having not THE Spirit. They are Apostates (Romans 8:9). Dead men in pulpits and pews.

V17-21 – The Apostles warned us of Apostates, then. Now, in the End Times are on the increase worldwide. Look at the religious – scene today. Ask the average churchgoer. He will answer incorrectly about Salvation and what is a Christian. We become a Christian by New Birth. Not by nature – natural man, natural birth. Apostates stir up arguments, dissension, not by THE Spirit.

v20 – Up to this point Jude writes on Apostates. Now Jude says, ”Beloved” – in sharp contrast to Apostates, build up Faith, praying in the Holy Ghost.

Seven – fold duty of Believers:

Build themselves up in most holy faith. Develops Christian character. Important in days of Apostasy. 2Peter 1:5 – ‘add to your faith’…. Foundation… faith… love the capstone of the building. Christ saves us alone’ no virtue of ours – but then on we bear responsibility for growth, a life – long task (Acts 20:32). Build – read and apply the teachings of the Bible to life. Desire the Word to grow (v20). Pray in the Holy Ghost. Bible study and prayer go together. In Bible study God speaks to you. In prayer you speak to God. Praise and prayer follows Bible Study. No true prayer apart from the Holy Ghost (Romans 8:26). He makes intercession for the Saints, in our hearts, when Christ becomes Saviour We do not know how to pray as we ought. Holy Ghost directs prayer, prompts us, goes on groaning within. The Holy Ghost is the intercessor on earth. Jesus is the intercessor in Heaven. The Holy Ghost filters out wrong prayer, interprets the heart groans to the Father’s Throne. Keep yourselves (Believers only) in the love of God. Jesus keeps us in Salvation. Not the same thing (John 15:9-10). Continue ye in my love, build your faith. Stay in it. Store up, in it. Walk in the Light. Walk with the Lord (hymn). Keep yourselves in the Love of the Lord. Keep His commandments. Abide in and know His Love.

v21 – Inward look – outward look – upward look – forward look. He is coming soon and He will change us into His likeness. Looking for His mercy to deliver us – body, soul and spirit, some from sickness, some from oppression, away from the growing evil in these days. Perhaps today!


v22—25 – What we are to do for others who are deceived (v22-24). When they argue, show compassion, gentle. Every case different. Problem everywhere is sin, alienation from God. Mercy, love, Grace flow through us. Live in tune with the Holy Spirit. Kind, helpful, to those who doubt. Harshness drives people away

v23 – Others save with fear. Exercise caution. Single zeal with godly fear. Unholy teaching defiles, as does unholy living. Do not become influenced by such or become contaminated. Do not be tempted to tone – down your message to those who oppose you. Witness ‘to your own sex, satan is very subtle. Pulling out of hell – fire, sinners that are near it destruction by fire (v7). This is real! Sodom and Gomorrah burnt by fire. Not symbolic but actual. A warning – hell is real. Matthew 13 – Wheat – tares. Symbols are interpreted. Fire is not interpreted. Fire remains fire! Eternal fire. Sinners send themselves there by choice – rejecting the Gospel (Luke 9:43-47). Hell-fire is eternal. Jesus taught hell–fire. Hell is to be avoided and shunned and Heaven to be gained. Unsaved close to hell, on the verge – a breath and a heart – beat away from it (Luke 16). Torment. Jesus says it. “We shudder – yet we must preach it. Souls saved – pulled out of the fire (Proverbs 11:30; Daniel 12). The wise shine. Know the Word, Pray. Witness. Keep yourselves in the sphere of the love of God, looking for His Coming (crown). Hate even the garments which are spotted by the flesh (sin), not too strong a phrase when defilement can spot the Christian.

v21-25 – Letter ends as it began. Words of assurance, especially to those living in the Last Days of the End Times. Need of much Grace and strength from God in the midst of moral breakdown and growing wickedness. Assurance of being kept by the Lord. Child of God cannot become an Apostate, yet we can stumble fall and fail the Lord, but not lose our Salvation. We live in fallen body now. When we sin, our life out of line, convicted by the Holy-Spirit until we repent and get right with the Lord again. We can fall temporarily, but not be lost (Psalm 37:24; John 10:28-29). Safe in the arms of Jesus. This is not true of the Apostate though, he is not saved. He is not the Lord’s child. Christian need not fall. He has a Saviour who is able to keep him. We fall and fail when we wander from Him. We cannot keep ourselves from sin. He is able to keep us from falling and preserve us and we ought to desire this as our walk. Keep your­self in His love and commandments. Lean upon the staff of His Word as we walk among the dead of the world. The Word promotes law and order – the Way of God – otherwise chaos. Read your Bible – young and old, pray every day (chorus).Without this you will fall. The Bible focuses on your Saviour as does your prayers. Hold Him central in your life. Follow the way of the Lord revealed in the Word. Be a tree planted by the water.

Now a sudden transition in the verses. They plant the Believer into the presence of God. Kept by, for and now into the presence of Christ. Note the order. In the world – next moment in Glory. In the twinkling of an eye – Rapture we are there (1 Corinthians 15:51-52). He longs for deliverance from this sin – cursed world and body. New, immortal, glorious incorruptible, spiritual body awaits us in a flash of a moment. Faultless. Amomos Gk. Without blemish. Same word exactly used of Jesus (1Peter 1:19). Lamb without blemish or spot. We are to be like Him. Pure. Spotless as He is. Conformed to His image. That truth will carry us through every sorrow, every problem here, note, with exceeding joy – how much does that mean. Immeasurable joy. Can you imagine this? No. So great. Joy unspeak­able and full of glory. Think of Him who made it all possible. End of v25. Our condition was so hopeless, it took the power and love of God to save us. All power is given to Him. He died for us, the just for the unjust to bring us to God. Glory, majesty, dominion, power belongs to Him. What better way to end a letter. A. great loud, AMEN. We will echo this Amen. ‘Blessing, honour, power, glory to the Lamb who sits on the Throne for ever’ (Revelation 4:11; 5:12-13).

God’s programme will soon be over. Stand before God in the Righteousness of the Lamb.

Outline Analysis – ‘The Acts of the Apostates’

v1-2 – Assurance for the Christian.

v3 – The Believer and the Faith.

v4 – Apostates described.

v5-8 – Apostates in the Old Testament.

v9-10 – Apostasy in the Supernatural Realm.

v11 – An ancient trio of Apostates.

v12-13 – Apostasy in the Natural Realm.

v14-16 – Apostasy in Old Testament Prophecy.

v17-19 – Apostates Described.

v20-23 – The Believer and the Faith.

v24-25 – Assurance for the Christian.

Examples in Jude are found in Genesis (v6-7, 11, 14); Deuteronomy (v9); Exodus (v5);

Numbers (v5, 11). Three are New Testament. Revelation (v6, 9, 14).

First departure – same as end. ‘WOES’ in Matthew and Revelation 8,12, 18, 9&11, 11&23